India is the most populous democracy in the world. Moreover, no other society is as diverse as that of India. The people of India achieved freedom on 15 August 1947 (Independence Day) after an arduous and democratic struggle against the British colonial masters. The Constitution of India, an outcome of democratic deliberations for nearly three years, came into effect on 26 January 1950 (Republic Day). The values of sovereignty, socialism, secularism, justice, liberty, equality and fraternity are enshrined in the Constitution. These are espoused by a wide range of parties across the political spectrum. Furthermore, the principle of separation of powers was adopted to prevent centralisation of power and abuse of authority.
Geography of India
“India is the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history,the grandmother of legend and the great ggrandmother of tradition. Our most valuable and most instructive material in the history of man are treasured up in India only.”
The primary objective of this part is to familiarise you with the basic features of the Indian economy, and its development, post Independence. However, it is equally important to know something about the country’s economic past even as you learn about its present state and future prospects.
Science and Technology
India envisions its position to be among top five global scientific power by 2020. It has declared 2010-2020 as the Decade of Innovation.
Languages and Literature
India is a multilingual country. The 1961 Census, which can legitimately be considered most authentic in this respect, recorded a total of 1,652 languages belonging to four (now five, with the addition of Andamanese and Nicobarese family, see Abbi 2006) different language families in this country.
Education is a dynamic process of human development which is ever evolving with the changes in the society. It diversifies as per the needs of the community and extends its reach and coverage.
Study of art history has developed in association with the archaeological studies, however, it is new recognized as a specialized discipline. In the west, mainly in Europe, the art historical discipline has grown considerably with numerous methodological inputs, where as in India it is still in the process of development in its investigating mechanisms.
Tradition of Indian Crafts
Mahatma Gandhi’s ideas about self-sufficiency and handicrafts were directly related to his views on industries and industrial society. Gandhiji believed the industrial societies were based on an endless production of commodities.
Pandit Ravi Shankar was born on 7 April, 1920, in Varanasi, India. He played the sitar, a melodious stringed instrument popular in India. He was also a composer and greatly responsible for stimulating Western appreciation of Indian music globally. Ravi Shankar spent most of his youth studying music and dance and touring extensively in India and Europe with his brother Uday Shankar’s dance troupe.
India has one of the oldest film industries in the world. Though the first film advertisement in India appeared in the Times of India on 7 July 1896, inviting people to witness the Lumiere Brothers' moving pictures, "the wonder of the world", it was not until early 1913 that an Indian film received a public screening.